Punctuation

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Apostrophes with Other Contractions

When writing about years, insert an apostrophe where numbers are dropped. Examples: The winter of ’65 the ’96 Olympics In a few words and some names, o’, d’, l’, and t’ indicate abbreviated forms of the or of in various languages. Examples: o’clock L’Enfant Plaza P.J. O’Rourke Sometimes to show pronunciation in dialogue, the word

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Titles Which Take No Punctuation

Do not underline, italicize, or place in quotation marks the name of the Bible, its books, divisions, or version, or other religious Scriptures and their divisions or versions. Example: In I Corinthians the Bible says that the greatest eternal value is love. (The Bible and its book take no special punctuation.) Example: The Talmud’s tractate

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Colons with Lists

Use a colon before a list when the list is preceded by a complete independent clause. Never use a colon to separate a preposition from its objects or a verb from its complements. Some form of the word follow usually indicates a colon before the list. Correct: John has all the ingredients: minced clams, milk,

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Using Dashes

A dash is a long horizontal mark twice the length of a hyphen. On most typewriters and computers dashes are represented by typing two hyphens. Dashes are emphatic. They are nearly like emphatic parentheses. To be effective, dashes, like exclamation points, should not be overused. Dashes indicate an abrupt change of thought. Sometimes they set

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Scientific Nomenclature

The Latin-derived scientific names are capitalized except for the specific and subspecific names. The generic, specific, and subspecific names are underlined or italicized. The names of the following are capitalized: kingdom, phylum, subphylum, class, subclass, superorder, order, suborder, superfamily, family, subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus. The names of the following are not capitalized: superspecies, species, subspecies.

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